Firstly, the card number on its own is no good to you, you'll definitely need the Expiry Date, most likely the CVV Security Code, and possibly the Start Date.
Your Card details won't be on any statement, receipt, nor will the bank tell you them over the phone.
Visa Debit cards have never included the Account Number in them. However, Banks using Switch (Old Maestro) such as HSBC, NatWest, RBS, etc. used to include them in the 18-digit long card number across the front, for example HSBC would be 6759[followed by Six-digit Sort Code][followed by Eight-digit Account Number]. But ever since they've switched to the standard 16-digit format, the numbers are now random (and they've dropped the Issue Number in favour of a start date). A few of the old Cards are still in date but most have expired, so I doubt if yours was one of them.
Best bet is to report it lost/stolen and get a new one sent out. Or pay for it on a friend/family member's card and give them the money.